A new epoch with unbiased investigations of intrinsic properties of galaxies and their evolution has just started. High performance technology in 3D-spectroscopy in the optical/NIR regime and in radio interferometry allows for the first time the efficient mapping of stars, gas, and dust, in galaxies near and far. Detailed measurements of individual objects are complemented by surveys aiming at a full census of galaxies across the local Universe. Reaching out to the limits of the Universe, the evolution of spatially resolved properties is traced along the whole cosmic history. Likewise to these observational campaigns, new computer technology and highly advanced algorithms are exploited for detailed simulations to probe the underlying physical and cosmological connection.