Jets appear in a wide range of astrophysical sources. In extragalactic systems, they signal accretion onto a supermassive black hole, providing unique testbeds in which to probe an array of fundamental physics processes. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in understanding jets due to the advent of an unprecedented number of space- and ground-based telescopes covering the entire electromagnetic spectrum, in parallel with commensurable progress in theory and simulations. This is an important juncture to organize an IAU meeting in 2014 to bring together the community of jet researchers to synthesize the collected knowledge in order to confront outstanding problems in the field. With the realization of the SKA, LSST, and CTA in the coming decade, all likely to be situated in the southern hemisphere, the meeting location was selected to help motivate and facilitate future collaborations with researchers in South America.